Former Newark Schools Superintendent Cami Anderson is now CEO of ThirdWay, an organization focused on solving problems of equity, specifically in regards to the treatment of marginalized students in school systems.
Discipline Revolution, one of her initiatives within ThirdWay, seeks to redefine the role discipline plays in the classroom, particularly in regards to the system’s disproportionately harsh punishments towards students of color, students with disabilities, and LGBTQ+ students. On Nov. 11, she sat down for an interview with The Daily Princetonian.
The Daily Princetonian: What made you become interested in education development?
Cami Anderson: I have 11 siblings — my parents had three and adopted nine. Most of my siblings joined our family because of some significant challenges, and I just saw at a really young age how school was different for me, who was able-bodied, heterosexual, not housing insecure, than my siblings, who did not have those privileges.
Just also seeing my siblings, some of them court-involved, kids of color, LGBTQ, just [seeing] all the ways in which schools made those labels worse instead of better. I’m just driven by this question of what … a better school system would look like, where all of my siblings could thrive … It’s been a burning thing for me since I was a kid, and it’s kind of what has driven my whole career.
DP: How does Discipline Revolution measure its success?
CA: We don’t just look at suspension, because if you do that, you can reduce suspensions but increase expulsion, or reduce suspensions and increase transfers or school-based arrests. For us, the ultimate measure of success is closing the opportunity gap.
We still have most school systems’ black students underperforming as compared to their peers, even when we control for poverty, students with disabilities who underperform as compared to their peers. In the end, we believe that all the things we’re doing close opportunity gaps, and you can see things like decrease in chronic absenteeism … and better achievement among groups of folks who have been underserved.
DP: What are some solutions or alternatives to punishments?
CA: We do a lot around ‘creating’ the conditions in classrooms and in schools where students feel seen and heard and whether their identities are affirmed and they’re busy doing meaningful work. So lots of stuff on prevention, high quality relationships between teachers and students, culturally responsive teaching so that students feel like they see their own culture and their own identity affirmed, de-escalation conflicts so that when young people inevitably challenge [the system], which is kind of their job, that the adults know how to meet them … We start with the premise that we shouldn’t think about discipline as a thing to do to punish kids, but rather as a set of things that adults can do to create the conditions where harsh discipline isn’t necessary.
DP: I want to talk about your departure from your position as Newark’s schools superintendent. What was the reason behind that?
CA: My team and I felt like the building blocks of the plan were in place. We had done a ton of great work to seed the long-term strategy, and that was just a good time to have a different and new voice.
DP: Talk to me about this plan.
CA: It’s called One Newark. We basically said, “10 years from now, what needs to be true in order for every kid in Newark to have a neighborhood school that is excellent?” Newark is a city that was built for three times the population it currently has. We looked at building quality — literally, there are some buildings in Newark that Abraham Lincoln visited. So, there’s just a lot of underinvestment buildings, too many schools for the [number] of folks living there now, and in the charter sector, there were thousands forming, but no coordination.
So, what we did was, we sat back, and we really did look at the long goal, looked at how many families were on the waiting lists for charter schools, what the characteristics of those families were in terms of special-ed status, ELL status, and created a whole plan. And it had all those tenets that I walked through: unifying the enrollment system so that we didn’t disadvantage families who couldn’t navigate 10 lotteries, creating a plan for every building — so before I got there, folks would just go to school and they’d just sit there, which is just not good for communities.
So we figured out how many schools we actually needed and which schools were inhabitable. We did some portfolio planning, built a bunch of new secondary schools because we felt we just didn’t have enough diversity of options for kids in high school, [created] a plan to help retrain folks who are laid off or impacted by the right sizing of the district … We had a whole thing on talent. We had a whole recruiting thing called Teach Newark.
So it was a nine point soup to nuts, from enrollment to talent, and it was a five-year plan with lots of milestones and lots of input. It was a good high quality plan, and it continued to be executed after I left. I just felt like it was time to have a different person for that phase of the work.
DP: Can you talk about some of the findings that suggested the plan caused massive layoffs among teachers?
CA: It didn’t. There’s a lot of misreporting about what was and wasn’t in that plan. So there’s about a hundred schools in Newark and because the charter growth was profound, they were going to end up running around forty percent of the schools based on the growth and that’s partly because of community demand — I think there’s something like 5,000 people on the charter school waiting list — which meant that the traditional system was shrinking. So it is true that there were fewer jobs available as a result.
The vast majority of those right-sizing, we were able to rely just through natural attrition because every year, when you have a system that big, x number of people retire, and we had an older teacher population to begin with. So I would say the vast majority of the right-sizing, we were able to realize just through natural attrition. So we had 100 jobs one year, 20 people left, and we just closed those positions. The reported massive layoffs are not accurate.
DP: I wonder if you could tell me a little bit more about why people are investing in charter schools as opposed to fixing public schools.
CA: Yeah, I see it as a “both and,” and we did in Newark, too. Charters have a lot of flexibility, and some use it to do many innovative, kid-centric things. With traditional schools, you have a lot more constraints … Meanwhile, the school itself is not good and families are frustrated. That’s what families in Newark would say all the time, like, ‘we want things fixed now. Don’t tell me that you have to negotiate with four unions to make it happen. I don’t care, my kid can’t read.’
Having said that, we also believe that there are things you can do from the traditional side, and we did them. In a bigger system, you can buy the best stuff, because you have the power of the purse. You have innovative collective bargaining agreements that allow you to retain the best folks and give flexibility to schools that are doing well.
DP: Do you have anything else you’d like to add?
CA: It’s good to be here, at Princeton. I’ve already met students … in the public policy space and beyond who are really thinking deeply about wanting to contribute to serving in a public policy type of role and trying to solve public policy issues. I think that’s great and the only thing I would say is that it’s not easy …
We have massive racial inequality as an example, and changing that’s going to be uncomfortable. So I’m glad to see there are people who want to be a part of the solution. I’m lucky that I’ve been at it all these years, and I plan to be at it for many more.
By WINNIE HU
NEWARK — There is Sonn Sam, a Rhode Island transplant who could be mistaken for one of the students at his alternative high school, with his shaven head, sneakers and tattooed left arm.
There is Chaleeta Barnes, who was promoted after just three years as a math coach at the Newark elementary school where her mother once taught.
And there is Raymond Peterson, the founding principal of Bard High School Early College in Manhattan, who came out of retirement to start a similar school in Newark.
These are some of the 17 new principals — 11 of them under age 40, 7 from outside Newark — recruited this year to run nearly a quarter of the city’s schools. They were hired by Cami Anderson, the new schools superintendent, as part of an ambitious plan to rebuild the 39,000-student district, which has long been crippled by low achievement and high dropout rates, but now is flush with up to $200 million from prominent donors, including Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook.
“I believe a strong principal is the key to almost everything,” Ms. Anderson said in an interview. “Where you have great performance, you have great principals, period, full stop. Where you have low performance, you have struggling principals. It’s not that complicated.”
Ms. Anderson, 40, who was appointed in May, said that before she came, Newark chose principals through an informal and somewhat arbitrary process, based largely on recommendations from school employees, parents and political leaders. She quickly ousted six principals she deemed ineffective, then used some of the donor money to set up a search committee to replace them and to fill seven vacancies and four positions at new high schools. Ms. Anderson has also broken from district policy to give all principals more autonomy to hire staff, and teamed up with a nonprofit group, New Leaders for New Schools, to develop what she called an “emerging leaders program.”
All of which has led to complaints from some teachers, parents and community leaders.
“She’s taking a real dramatic approach and bringing in younger leaders with little or no experience,” said Alturrick Kenney, a public affairs consultant who is a member of the city’s school advisory board. “That’s a great thing for their careers, but it could be a detriment for the district. It’s like with any basketball team: you bring in a group of rookies, and they will typically be outperformed by the veterans.”
Others said that the hiring process dragged on too long, leaving some schools paralyzed until shortly before classes began on Sept. 6, or that the emphasis on principals might skirt a larger issue: teaching. “It’s very easy to blame the sinking of the Titanic on the captain, but I would think the crew had something to do with it, too,” said Joseph Del Grosso, president of the Newark Teachers Union.
To Ms. Anderson, though, the two are intrinsically linked. “We carefully selected principals with the skill and will to drive teacher quality,” she said.
Her search committee, which included former principals and teachers, recruited and screened about 90 candidates, two-thirds of whom were brought in for four-and-a-half-hour interviews in which they critiqued videotaped lessons, discussed case studies and wrote essays on the spot.
“There was no way you could blow through this interview,” recalled Lynn Irby Jackson, the new principal of Arts High School, who had worked in the system for 19 years, including as an elementary school principal. “You needed to bring your A game.”
District officials said the new process weeded out candidates who looked better on paper than in person, and allowed less traditional ones to shine. Among those who made the cut were a charter school leader with a M.B.A., a cofounder of a nonprofit group working to end youth violence and an assistant principal of alternative schools and programs in New York. Their salaries range from $103,456 to $139,768, and the district has assembled a team of seasoned administrators to help train, monitor and evaluate them.
“They have a gleam in their eye, and they’re ready to go work,” Leonard P. Pugliese, president of the 325-member City Association of Supervisors and Administrators union, said of the new recruits. “I’m impressed with them.”
Ms. Barnes, the 31-year-old former math coach now running Dayton Street Elementary School, ticked off her plans last week as she walked down hallways lined with college flags. She is converting empty classrooms into a staff lounge and aerobics room to lift morale, and freeing teachers from longstanding requirements that classroom walls display number lines, word walls and academic standards.
When a math teacher asked what Ms. Barnes wanted on the walls, she told her: “I want what you want.” The teacher was speechless. “I want the staff to start thinking for themselves and what’s best for their students,” Ms. Barnes said. “And not us thinking for them.”
For students, she has been rewarding good behavior by handing out raffle tickets for an in-class movie with popcorn. Outside the library, she chided a line of rowdy first graders. “I wish I had been able to give out tickets,” she said. “We’ll try again next time.”
Dr. Sam, 30, grew up in a tough section of Providence, R.I., and said he had turned his life around after the birth of his oldest daughter, who is now 9. He came to Newark in May to help start Newark Leadership Academy high school, after a challenging year in which his mother died from cancer and he was criticized for overstating on his résumé the improvement in math scores at a previous school where he had been principal; he said that the résumé was based on incorrect data he had received from a school employee, and that he had corrected it.
The other morning, Dr. Sam sat on the gym floor with students who, one by one, raised hands to share their fears about school: not being smart enough, not having friends, not succeeding. Then he shared his own.
“I was a C and D student,” Dr. Sam, who earned his Ph.D. in educational leadership, said. “At one point in my life, I was afraid of what I could be. If I could do it, any of you can do it too.”
Afterward, in an office where books overflowed from two plastic tubs near a hand-carved African drum that he bangs on to relieve stress, Dr. Sam dialed into a district conference call, using his cellphone because the office line was not yet hooked up. Attendance, he reported, hovered around 70 percent on the third day — respectable for a population of students he described as “over age and undercredit.”
He hung up and sent e-mails to teachers that he wanted to interview for the last two openings on his staff of 14. Soon he headed downstairs to rejoin the students in the gym, only to find one on a cellphone in the hall.
“My man, how’s it going?” he said casually.
The student said he had been calling his mother to check on a relative.
“Let me tell you, brother, that is a very fair and justified phone call,” Dr. Sam replied. “Next time, just let us know.”
Later, the principal conceded that the student could have been chatting with his girlfriend. “For me, it’s a small victory, the fact that we had a positive interaction,” he said. “A lot of times, they just want to be heard.”
Dr. Sam, who spent his own high school years excelling outside of class in football, drama and break dancing, said he wanted to make sure there were options for his students, most of whom had dropped out of or struggled in traditional schools. He called them together. He pledged to them that every one would leave school this time with a diploma in hand.
“I know coming to a new community and just saying ‘Kumbaya,’ you’re not going to have trust,” he told them. “It’s about action. When I say I’ve got your back, I need you to hold me accountable.”
One junior, Tony Chambers, 20, said Dr. Sam’s life story had made an impression. “I never heard of someone with a C average making it,” he said.
Sonn Sam, center, came to Newark Leadership Academy from Rhode Island.
Credit: Matt Rainey for The New York Times
A version of this article appears in print on September 16, 2011, on Page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: Troubled District’s Bet: Wave of New Principals.
Cami Anderson, superintendent of Newark public schools, talks about the challenge of reforming the low-performing district.
Sam Stone, executive director of the Civics Education Initiative and Donna Phillips, a social studies teacher and civics education researcher, discuss proposed legislation requiring high school seniors to pass a test on U.S. history and civics. Jane Williams hosts Bloomberg Radio’s “Bloomberg EDU.”
Newark’s Schools Superintendent Cami Anderson has made headlines implementing programs to transform a troubled school district. Her shake-up of Newark’s public school system has earned her a place in Time magazine’s list of the 100 most influential people in the world. Anderson sat down with Managing Editor Mike Schneider to talk about the recognition and her goals for Newark’s public schools.
Cami Anderson is taking bold and controversial steps to reform education in the Newark Public School system.
Cami Anderson is a passionate and an established leader in the national education reform movement with more than 20 years’ of experience. In that time, she has taken on roles from teacher to non-profit executive to system-wide administrator.
In May of 2011, she was appointed State District Superintendent for Newark Public Schools by Governor Chris Christie, where she is responsible for raising student achievement for more than 40,000 students.
As chief executive of the largest school district in the state of New Jersey, Anderson oversees a budget of nearly $1 billion. She is accelerating innovation, initiating public private partnerships at unprecedented levels, and setting a new national model for the transformation of urban education in America. Under her tenure, Anderson negotiated a landmark contract with the Newark Teachers Union.
Prior to joining NPS, she was Superintendent of Alternative High Schools and Programs for the New York City Department of Education (District 79), consisting of approximately 30,000 young people and 60,000 adults. She received wide-scale recognition for her work with the city’s most struggling students. Anderson also served as executive director of Teach for America New York, where she founded a board of business and education leaders, increased teacher quality, and launched Teach for America Week.
She also served as Chief Program Officer for New Leaders for New Schools, which was recognized by Fast Company and Harvard Business School, Education Week, the US Department of Education, and the Teaching Commission as one of the most effective principal preparation programs in the country. Ms. Anderson also boasts a diverse background as a Montessori educator, youth theatre director, athlete, and Title IX advocate. She has been recognized for her dedication to expanding educational opportunities and empowering youth throughout her career.
Anderson was nominated for a national Teacher of the Year award, received the Peter Jennings Award for her impact on educational equity, belongs to the Aspen Global Leader Network, and was recently named one of Time Magazine’s “100 Most Influential People.” She graduated with a B.A. in education and anthropology from the University of California at Berkeley and an M.A. in public policy and education from Harvard.
Since taking office as the superintendent of Newark Public Schools in 2011, Cami Anderson has become a prominent figure in urban K–12 school reform. Having inherited a system with a roughly 50 percent graduation rate and a looming budget shortfall, Anderson has faced an array of challenges in her efforts to promote excellence and equity in Newark schools.